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In my introduction, I used Islington as an example of what the implementation of the health reforms looked like on a local level primarily because Gerry Kearns's case study of the North London parish was such a widely-cited and well-recognized examination of Victorian health legislation. Therefore, I've located it here on the map. Kearns notes that because of its location away from London's center and its rapidly expanding location, it became a place where "noxious trades," such livestock farming, refuse processing, and chemical works, that were not tolerated in the more crowded areas of the city, became concentrated in Islington (Kearns 98). Though Islington did experience deaths from cholera and other infectious diseases, Kearns tells us it was "a relatively healthy part of London" (98). Therefore, it's main concerns were to regulate its various industries, and keep them from polluting the water and the surrounding land.


Frances Thielman


Kearns, Gerry. “Cholera, Nuisances and Environmental Management in Islington, 1830-55”
Medical History 11 (1991): 94-125. Print.


Frances Thielman, “Islington,” Appalachian State University, accessed December 3, 2023,

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